San Francisco Conference and Ratification of UN Charter

  January 07, 2021   Read time 1 min
San Francisco Conference and Ratification of UN Charter
San Francisco Conference was held for final ratification of the Charter of United Nations as a strong General International Organization. This Charter was already engineered by the world powers. There were key points that were supposed to cover the

The Conference opened at the Opera House in San Francisco on 25 April, 1945. Stettinius, the US Secretary of State, was in the chair at the opening meeting and welcomed the delegates on behalf of the US Government. But there almost immediately arose an East-West battle, ominous for the future course of the Conference, on the question of the presidency. In the Steering Committee, Molotov immediately objected to Stettinius remaining in the chair for the whole conference, demanding that the presidency should be held in rotation by each of the four sponsoring powers. This request had already been put forward by the Soviet Union in preliminary discussions about the Conference. Traditionally the presidency of international conferences goes to the host state, but it may also in some cases go to the initiating country or countries. In substance, therefore, the Soviet demand had some justification, since, in a matter as important as the preparation of a new world organisation, there clearly could exist a significant national advantage for the country occupying the presidency. It was the brusque and uncompromising way the demand was presented which aroused apprehension. The episode scarcely exhibited to the world the united front between the sponsoring powers which many had hoped to see. Eventually a compromise proposed by Eden was accepted. The presidency of the public sessions was to rotate among the four sponsoring powers, while in the steering and executive committees, and in meetings of the four presidents themselves, Stettinius was to be in the chair. Almost as soon as this was out of the way, another procedural question was raised which proved even more contentious: this time over participation in the Conference. There were four countries about which disagreements had not been resolved before the Conference began: Argentina, Poland and the two Soviet republics (Ukraine and Byelorussia).